Global Markets Complexity Index

WP&C's 4th annual GMCI report assesses 100 countries across 34 complexity factors

The GMCI is a framework for geographic footprint strategy that helps multinationals navigate international expansion and contraction. Explore the analysis of market, operational, and regulatory complexity across 100 countries in the fourth annual report and interactive map.


GMCI Interactive Map

Download the 2023 GMCI report

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Interactive: Explore our 8 GMCI complexity groupings

The GMCI was created using a machine learning clustering algorithm to group together countries with similar complexity profiles. The interactive chart below plots 100 countries in three-dimensional space based on their market, operational, and regulatory complexity. Colors represent the eight GMCI groups. Click the 3D plot and then hover points to identify countries and use the toolbar to rotate, pan, or zoom in and out.

3D Plot of 100 Countries in their GMCI Complexity Groups
GMCI 2023 Plot

We help companies find new sources of profitable growth in complex environments

Learn how we helped a global media organization that was losing tens of millions of dollars per year determine how and where to grow to regain profitability, resulting in digital ad revenue growth of more than 50%.

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Calculate your Geographic Footprint Complexity Score 

WP&C developed the Footprint Complexity Score (FCS) to quantify the geographic complexity of a company’s global footprint and measure its correlation to operating profit. Rooted in the Global Markets Complexity Index (GMCI) country groupings, your FCS provides unique insights into the geographic complexity of your operations, expansion, and contraction strategies compared to competitors.

Calculate Your Score

CFS Graph

Unlock profitability and higher operating margins

In the wake of supply chain shocks and reduced demand expectations, companies are taking a more critical view of their geographic footprints. Our research shows that spreading operations across Global Markets Complexity Index groups with varying levels of complexity has a direct, negative impact on operating margin and profit.

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Explore strategic alternatives to expansion

Adjacency moves often fail to achieve expected growth and instead deliver yet another layer of complexity and cost. Learn how to avoid common pitfalls and explore alternatives to geographic expansion.

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GMCI's notable media coverage

The Wall Street Journal describes the GMCI as an "...index [that] helps identify which countries have similar operating environments so investors—both corporate and financial—can make more-informed decisions on which countries they will be comfortable or capable of operating in.” Quartz frames the GMCI as a new tool to tackle complexity and CEOWorld Magazine explores GMCI's impact.


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Five things multinationals with successful market entries get right

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Choose wisely and take country complexity into account.

 The allure of India’s large population, fast growth, and relative wealth is attractive to many Western companies, but its high complexity has led to high-profile retreats, such as Walmart and GM.


Minimize risk by ensuring an easy exit is feasible. Carefully consider the mode of entry and market selection.

Uber kicked‐off operations in Bulgaria with only two local employees. When faced with prohibitive regulatory complexity, Uber cut losses and made a swift exit.


Bypassing traditional channels may be successful in countries with high market and operational complexity.

 Companies like Amway have entered and grown quickly in complex countries. Their salesforce swiftly expands into rural areas and bypasses negotiations with local distribution channels. 


Start with one of the small jewels and use it as a platform for regional coverage.

Small countries have inherent advantages—less diversity in consumer tastes, concentrated populations in urban areas, and fewer challenges transporting products. 


Moving from low- to high-complexity groups requires new skills and resources.

 IKEA’s expansion, while gradual, is noteworthy for how it follows the GMCI roadmap.

To be successful, understand your core

To compete abroad, companies must understand their core—where and how they truly make money. But most companies do not have an accurate view of which products, segments, and customers make or lose money due to complexity-induced cross-subsidizations. With a true understanding of core profitability, companies can tailor a portfolio for each market that accounts for local preferences without adding unnecessary complexity.

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Leverage your core

Download the 2023 GMCI report

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Learn how to improve your geographic strategy

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Contact the GMCI Leadership Team

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Stephen Wilson
Managing Partner
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Scott Stallbaum

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Lee Johnson

Engagement Director
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Jeannie Elliott
Marketing Director
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Dave Hoogmoed, President Land O’Lakes Purina Feed
“Wilson Perumal & Company's approach treats complexity as the enemy. Declaring war is the most direct route to an efficient, profitable enterprise. We declared war on the complexity in our portfolio, resulting in streamlined customer offerings and a more nimble business.”
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Ed Lonergan, President and CEO Diversey, Inc.
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Fernando Palacios, EVP and Chief Integrated Supply Chain Officer MillerCoors LLC
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Growth in the Age of Complexity

In our latest book, learn how to navigate the Sirens of Growth and build true scale in today’s new era of competition.

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